Según el sapo, la pedrada

sapo¿Cuánto cobrar por un servicio? Para quienes emprendemos un negocio y no contamos con un producto tangible que ofrecer es fácil caer en la tentación de cobrar en base a la precepción que se tiene acerca del cliente o copiar la tarifa de alguien más. En otras palabras, recurrir a la ciencia “del tanteo”

El problema es que podemos caer en sobreestimar nuestro servicio y quedarnos sin clientes o cobrar tan barato que terminamos apenas cubriendo los costos del negocio para terminar trabajando prácticamente gratis. Para construir un negocio de servicios que sea rentable podemos realizar lo siguiente:

Haz una evaluación realista de tu experiencia realizando el servicio que ofreces ¿por cuántos años/proyectos has ejercido como consultor, diseñador, capacitador, escritor, etc.? Una evaluación sincera de tus competencias permite responder a un cliente que pregunta ¿por qué tan caro?

Investiga el precio corporativo. Dedica tiempo a investigar, ya sea en bolsas de trabajo, internet o entre tus conocidos, cuánto gana al año (incluye bonos y prestaciones) una persona con tu experiencia que desempeña ese puesto o función dentro de una empresa y divídelo entre 12 meses, después entre 4 semanas y finalmente el salario semanal entre 40 horas. El número resultante es un estimado del costo por hora del servicio profesional desempeñado.

¿A cuánto ascienden los costos variables por cada proyecto? Incluye los materiales o gastos específicos por el servicio. Una recomendación es no incluir viáticos (en caso de que viajar sea necesario) sino cobrarlos de forma independiente.

¿Cuáles son los costos fijos del negocio? Aunque se trabaje desde casa se debe considerar el consumo de energía eléctrica, limpieza, agua, teléfono fijo, celular, internet, etc. Para los equipos de cómputo y de oficina se debe considerar un costo de reemplazo (depreciación). No olvides incluir el costo de publicidad o de tu sitio de internet.

Un error frecuente es dividir el total de los costos fijos entre el total de horas “laborables” en el año. Lo cierto es que, en un principio no facturarás el 100% de tu tiempo y que no todas las horas en la oficina serán productivas (existe la llamada hora-pompa en que estarás consiguiendo clientes, en capacitación o simplemente improductivas). Un estándar para comenzar puede ser estimar que cobrarás solo el 30% o 40% de tu tiempo de acuerdo al ramo, así que divide los costos fijos entre esas horas y suma la cantidad a tu costo estimado por hora de servicio.

No te olvides de tu socio Don Gobierno a quien pagarás ISR y IETU así que adiciona un 40% a tu tarifa por hora. El rango puede variar de acuerdo a tu nivel de facturación pero siempre es mejor quedar un poco holgado y después ajustar.

Suma la rentabilidad esperada. Salir a emprender conlleva más riesgo que cobrar quincenalmente la nómina, así que adiciona un porcentaje de rentabilidad a la tarifa por hora. ¿10%, 20%, 30%? Depende del mercado y de qué tanto estés dispuesto a sacrificar al inicio.

El número obtenido es tu tarifa profesional por hora de servicio. Estima el número de horas que dedicarás  a cada cliente/proyecto y suma los costos variables para presentar tu cotización. En base a ella puedes negociar con tu cliente siempre teniendo en cuenta que un negocio sólo es negocio si produce ganancia, de lo contrario, estarás dedicándote a un pasatiempo costoso. Ahora puedes olvidarte del dedómetro y salir a venderte como todo un profesional. ¡Suerte!

Karla Bayly

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