Aprovecha los intereses de tu hipoteca (parte 2)

Infografía: Revista Metros Cuúbicos

Infografía: Revista Metros Cuúbicos

¿Cuáles son los requisitos?

Cada año debes recibir de parte de quien te otorgó el crédito hipotecario la constancia de intereses reales pagados a mas tardar el día 15 de febrero. Si no has hecho la deducción de años anteriores pero sí cuentas con las constancias correspondientes puedes solicitar la devolución hasta de los últimos cinco años presentando declaraciones complementarias por cada año omitido ante el SAT.
La fecha límite para presentarla declaración anual es el 30 de abril y puedes presentarla por tu cuenta en el portal del SAT (www.sat.gob.mx) o asesorándote con un contador profesional a quien deberás entregar tanto la constancia de intereses reales como la de retenciones que te entregó tu patrón (en caso de ser asalariado) una vez que notificaste que presentarías la declaración por tu cuenta antes del 15 de diciembre del año pasado.

En tu declaración anual deberás indicar la cuenta bancaria incluyendo la CLABE en la cual se depositará la devolución en caso de existir saldo a favor. El tiempo que toma dependerá del momento en que presentes la declaración pues para quienes lo hacen a principios de abril puede tomar tan solo 15 días mientras que para quienes lo dejan hasta fin de mes o realizan el trámite de forma extemporánea el proceso puede tardar algunos meses.

Para evitar una auditoría por parte de Hacienda es importante tener en cuenta que solamente podrás deducir el pago de intereses de la hipoteca de la vivienda que habitas, sin embargo en caso de tener un crédito fraccionado, es decir, una parte con el banco y otra con el Infonavit para una misma vivienda sí podrás sumar los intereses reales pagados en ambas instituciones para la deducción de impuestos.

¿A mayor mensualidad mayor deducción?

Dedo que los intereses reales se calculan en base a la tasa de interés que cobra la institución financiera con la cual contrataste tu crédito hipotecario menos la inflación es claro que a mayor tasa de interés será mayor el monto a deducir. Ten en cuenta que la amortización tradicional de una hipoteca implica una mayor proporción de intereses en cada mensualidad durante los primeros años de vida del crédito por lo que el beneficio fiscal se irá reduciendo conforme avancen las mensualidades. El beneficio fiscal es mayor entonces para créditos recién contratados que para créditos a punto de finiquitarse.

¿Qué hago con la devolución?

Una vez presentada tu declaración anual y sí has cumplido con los requisitos en cuanto a forma y tiempo el SAT procesará tu devolución y la depositará en tu cuenta bancaria. Dado que es un dinero extra con el cual no cuentas de forma regular lo aconsejable sería utilizarlo para adelantar mensualidades de tu crédito hipotecario ya que si bien podrás seguir deduciendo intereses a lo largo de la vida del crédito, también es cierto que mientras más pronto liquides tu hipoteca estarás pagando menos por tu casa.

Aprovechar a tu favor el pago de los intereses de tu hipoteca es un derecho que te concede la ley y no deberías pasarlo por alto. Los honorarios de un contador, en caso de encuentres complicado presentar la declaración anual por tu cuenta, bien pueden justificarse con el beneficio de recibir entre 1.5 y 3 mensualidades de tu hipoteca de acuerdo al periodo de vida tu crédito y la tasa de interés contratada.

Este texto es una de mis colaboraciones como columnista de la revista Metros Cúbicos de Grupo Expansión. Prohibida su reproducción total o parcial.

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